George Sand

Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin de Francueil, better known by her nom de plume George Sand (1804–76), was a French novelist and woman of letters. In her lifetime one of the most popular writers in Europe, her novels have been largely neglected in English translation, and she is perhaps best known today for the series of affairs she had with notable figures, including writers Prosper Mérimée and Alfred de Musset and the composer Frédéric Chopin. Sand’s insistence on wearing men’s clothes in public and her refusal to adhere to contemporary rules governing women’s conduct has led to a recent speculation on her gender identity and a resurgence of interest in her life and works.